FAQ – Frequently asked questions

What is homologation?

Homologation is type approval. The word comes from Greek, in which the verb “homologeo” means “agrees”. More on the concept of approval can be found on the Testing for type approval page.

What is Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA)?

Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) is, in other words, EC type approval of a vehicle or type of vehicle. More on the concept of Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) can be found on the EC type approval of a vehicle or type of vehicle page.

What is the difference between approval and individual approval?

Type approval concerns a type of vehicle, i.e. a larger number of units; whereas individual approval concerns a single, specific vehicle.

What is the difference between EC type approval and individual EC approval?

Type approval applies to the type of vehicle, i.e. a larger number of units; whereas individual approval applies to a single, specific vehicle of category M1 or N1.

What is the difference between individual approval and individual EC approval?

The main difference is the jurisdiction in which the approval is honoured and the vehicle categories allowed.
Individual approval is issued only for the territory of the Republic of Poland, for all vehicle categories.
Individual EC approval is issued for all EU member states, for vehicle categories M1 and N1.

What does the step-by-step type approval procedure mean?

This is the procedure by which the manufacturer obtains all the required EC type approval certificates for the equipment or component or UNECE type approval certificates, on the basis of which the authorised body carries out the type approval test of a vehicle type, which results in the EC vehicle type approval certificate or the type approval certificate of the vehicle.

What does the one-step approval procedure mean?

This is the procedure whereby the authorised body performs the approval test for all required equipment or parts, as well as vehicle type approval tests that are the basis for issuing the EC type approval certificate or the type approval certificate for the vehicle.

What does the mixed approval procedure mean?

This is a step-by-step type approval procedure, during which the manufacturer may omit from their submission one or more ECE type approval certificates for UNECE equipment or components or UNECE type approval certificates for vehicle type approval testing, provided that they are substituted by reports containing the approval results of these equipment items or parts.

What is a vehicle type?

Vehicle type means vehicles belonging to a specific category which do not differ in their essential aspects as defined in Part B to Annex II of Directive 2007/46/EC. A given vehicle type may contain multiple variants and versions.

What is European approval?

European approval is a certificate issued in one of the Member States of the European Union in accordance with Directive 2007/46/EC. On the contrary to national type approval (national short series – NSS, or NKS in Polish), it is honoured throughout the entire EU.
 

What is a Member State?

A Member State is a nation state that is part of the European Union.

What does complete vehicle mean?

A complete vehicle is a vehicle that does not require completion (subsequent stages of assembly) to meet technical requirements and achieve its stated functional features.

What does incomplete vehicle mean?

An incomplete vehicle is a vehicle which, in order to meet the technical requirements and its stated functional features, should undergo at least one further assembly stage. Without further assembly stages having been completed, such a vehicle cannot be registered.

What does completed vehicle mean?

A completed vehicle is one vehicle which, in order to meet the technical requirements and its stated functional features, was created as a result of at least one assembly stage.

What categories of vehicles are distinguished?

Category M:

 
motor vehicles designed to carry people, with at least four wheels, including:
 
  1. category M1: vehicles for the carriage of passengers, having no more than eight seats (not counting the driver's seat);
  2. category M2: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, having more than eight seats (not counting the driver's seat) and having a maximum laden mass not exceeding 5 tonnes;
  3. category M3: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, having more than eight seats (not counting the driver's seat) and having a maximum laden mass exceeding 5 tonnes.

Category N:

 
motor vehicles with at least four wheels designed and constructed for the carriage of goods, including:
  1. category N1: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods, having a maximum laden mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes;
  2. category N2: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods, having a maximum laden mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 12 tonnes;
  3. category N3: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods, having a maximum laden mass exceeding 12 tonnes.

Category O:

trailers, including:
  1. category O1: trailers with a maximum laden mass not exceeding 750 kg;
  2. category O2: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 750 kg but not exceeding 3.5 tonnes;
  3. category O3: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 10 tonnes;
  4. category O4: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 10 tonnes.

Category T:

agricultural tractors, including:
  1. category T1: wheeled tractors with a maximum design speed not exceeding 40 km/h, where the axle closest to the driver has a minimum track width of not less than 1 150 mm; unladen mass, in running order, exceeding 600 kg and ground clearance not exceeding 1000 mm. In the case of tractors with a changeable driver position (change of the position of the seat and the steering wheel), the axle closest to the driver must be the axle with the largest diameter tires fitted;
  2. category T2: wheeled tractors with a maximum design speed not exceeding 40 km/h, having a minimum track width of less than 1 150 mm; mass in running order greater than 600 kg and ground clearance not exceeding 600 mm. Where the height of the centre of gravity of the tractor (measured relative to the ground) divided by the minimum wheelbase of each axle exceeds a value of 0.90, the maximum design speed is limited to 30 km/h;
  3. category T3: wheeled tractors with a maximum design speed not exceeding 40 km/h and with an unladen mass in running order not exceeding 600 kg;
  4. category T4: wheeled tractors of a special design with a maximum design speed not exceeding 40 km/h, under which the categories T4.1, T4.2 and T4.3 are distinguished by their clearance and width;
  5. category T5: wheeled tractors with a maximum design speed exceeding 40 km/h.

Category L:

  1. category L1e - two-wheel mopeds;
  2. category L2e - three-wheel mopeds;
  3. category L3e - two-wheel motorcycles without a sidecar;
  4. category L4e - two-wheeled motorcycles with a sidecar;
  5. category L5e - three-wheel motorcycles (trikes);
  6. category L6e - light quadricycles (quads);
  7. category L7e - four-wheelers.
 The following vehicles cannot be included in category L:
a) vehicles whose maximum design speed does not exceed 6 km/h,
b) vehicles intended to be guided by a pedestrian,
c) tractors and machines used for agricultural or similar purposes,
d) bicycles and bicycle-based buggies.

Category R:

agricultural trailers, including:
  1. category R1: trailers with a maximum laden mass not exceeding 1.5 tonnes;
  2. category R2: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 1.5 tonnes but not exceeding 3.5 tonnes;
  3. category R3: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 21 tonnes;
  4. category R4: trailers with a maximum laden mass exceeding 21 tonnes.
Each of the above trailer categories of is also marked with the index “a” or “b”, depending on the design speed:
  • “a” for trailers with a maximum design speed less than or equal to 40 km/h,
  • “b” for trailers with a maximum design speed of more than 40 km/h.

Category C:

tracked tractors, including tractors of categories C1, C2, C3, C4, C5
  • classified according to the same criteria as for category T. Within category C4, categories C4.1, C4.2, and C4.3 are distinguished according to the breakdown as for categories T4.1, T4.2, and T4.3.

Category S:

interchangeable towed devices.
  1. category S1: interchangeable towed devices with a maximum laden mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes;
  2. category S2: interchangeable towed devices with a maximum laden mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes.
Each category of interchangeable towed devices is also marked with the index “a” or “b”, depending on the design speed:
  • “a” for interchangeable towed equipment with a maximum design speed of 40 km/h or less,
  • “b” for interchangeable towed devices with a maximum design speed of more than 40 km/h.

What range of certification rights does BOSMAL have?

Document No. Title/Description
Dyrektywa 2007/46/WE/ Directive 2007/46/EC / Richtlinie 2007/46/EG DIRECTIVE 2007/46/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (Framework Directive)