Light microscopy – metallography

1. Microstructure of metal materials and their alloys in the raw, cast, annealed state, after heat treatment, thermo-chemical treatment and after plastic working is carried out according to an in-house method (BOSMAL/I-7-44) and the PN-H-04661:1975 and PN-H-04505:1966 standards.
2. Determining the shape, distribution and size of graphite in cast iron according to PN-EN ISO 945-1:2009 and ASTM A247-16.
  • Depth of decarburisation via metallographic method, according to PN-EN ISO 3887.
  • The content of inclusions in steel by method A according to ASTM E45, PN-H-04510
  • The average grain size by the comparative method, according to the scale of standards, the secant method and grain counting.
    • PN-EN ISO 643
    • ASTM E112
    • PN-EN ISO 2624
  • Macrostructure – visual assessment of surface and internal defects.
  • Macro- and microstructure of plastics.
  • Analysis of impurities on filters.
  • Metallographic examinations of heat exchangers (e.g. following corrosion tests).
  • Measurement of the depth of corrosion pits (3D module).
  • Microscopic examination of welded and soldered joints.

VHX-6000 digital microscope

  • Magnification 20 - 1000x
  • Advanced image sharpening
  • Images of high quality and resolution
  • Observation in reflected light and transmitted light
  • Observation from variable angles
  • Reflection removal
  • Fast automated table facilitates surface scanning
  • Fast folding surface (up to 4 cm)
  • Visualisation of 3D surfaces
  • Surface roughness measurements
  • Automatic particle counting
  • Automatic edge detection
  • Real-time measurements

Carl Zeiss Axio Imager M1m – Technical parameters

  • Magnification 12.5 - 2500x
  • Observation techniques in reflected light:
  • bright field
  • dark field
  • polarisation
  • differential interference contrast
  • differential interference contrast in circular polarisation
  • The possibility of observation in transmitted light
  • Built-in automated table facilitating surface scanning
  • Module for surface folding – Mosaix (up to 4 cm)
  • 3D module
  • Particle Analysis module for analysing impurities on filters
  • NMI module for the analysis of non-metallic inclusions
  • Module for graphite analysis in cast iron
  • Module for grain size analysis

Metallographic examination of heat exchangers

The examination is used to assess corrosion. Metallographic examinations are performed following corrosion tests of heat exchangers – as well as for the evaluation of soldered joints present on such products.
Document No. Title/Description
PN-EN ISO 643 Steels - Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size
ASTM E112 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
ASTM E45 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel
PN-EN ISO 3887 Steels - Determination of the depth of decarburization
PN-EN ISO 2624 Copper and copper alloys - Estimation of average grain size
PN-H-04510 Determination of the degree of contamination of steel with non-metallic inclusions
ASTM A247-16 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Microstructure of Graphite in Iron Castings
PN-H-04505:1966 Microstructure of steel products - Patterns and determination
PN-H-04661:1975 Gray, ductile and malleable cast iron - Metallographic tests - Determination of microstructure
BOSMAL/I-7-44 Evaluation of the microstructure of metallic products